There are numerous sources on the internet, particularly on social media, spreading misinformation related to vaccine safety. It is difficult to control the extent to which such messages circulate on the internet, because most of these posts circulate in closed groups in social media and other online echo chambers. The vaccine debate is stronger now more than ever due to the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of the prospective COVID-19 vaccines which are under development. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in vaccination services across the globe. All these factors make it important that reliable and updated information regarding vaccine safety is communicated to the public.
Wikipedia is one of the most popular knowledge platforms in the world. The health information on English Wikipedia receives huge traffic, which makes it one of the most consulted health care resources in the world. The Wikipedia article about the COVID-19 vaccine has gathered over two million views. Therefore, it is important that Wikipedia’s vaccine safety information is updated and reliable.
The Vaccine Safety Project launched this summer to find and bridge the knowledge gaps related to vaccine safety on English Wikipedia. The pages of the Vaccine Safety Project were designed like a WikiProject, a portal for Wikipedians with similar interests to collaborate with each other. The project created a portal with spaces for general discussion (talk), sharing vaccine-related news (news), listing articles related to vaccine safety (navbox), sharing tips for new editors (tips), listing sources and missing topics related to vaccine safety (sources, sources list, missing topics) and for article suggestions from Wikidata (Wikidata lists).
The Vaccine Safety Project also documented the existing knowledge related to vaccine safety on Wikipedia, which includes over 100 articles. The Sources list contains search strategies for finding relevant resources from medical repositories containing vaccination information. The project also contains links to reference sources that contain relevant images and data which could be used for strengthening the vaccine safety information on Wikipedia. One of the features of the vaccine safety project is the Missing Topics page. Topic areas related to vaccine safety which do not feature on Wikipedia are mapped here. In addition to general topics, organizations related to vaccine safety and country-based vaccination status are listed on this page. The resources listed in this page could be used in future to create the articles related to missing topics from a scratch.
The Vaccine Safety Project uses data from Wikidata, the sister project of Wikipedia, which is a free structured data repository. The project uses Listeria, an automated script, to create a list of topics surrounding vaccines, journals on vaccines and vaccine related journal articles. This list is updated every 24 hours, ensuring that all changes made on Wikidata are included. The entries present in this list could be used to create new articles related to vaccine safety on Wikipedia.
As a part of this project, bibliographic information related to vaccination from the National Academy of Sciences was uploaded to Wikidata. This was accomplished with a collaboration from Houcemeddine Turki, a Wikipedian working on bibliographic information on Wikidata and project lead of WikiCred project RefB: Adding Reference Support to Biomedical WikiData Statements.
Information from the Vaccine Safety Project was used to conduct the first Vaccine Safety edit-a-thon, a community event where experts and newcomers came together to edit Wikipedia articles. The edit-a-thon was organized by NewsQ and Wikimedia DC, in partnership with the World Health Organization’s Vaccine Safety Network and the Stanford History Education Group. Approximately twenty-five people participated in this edit-a-thon, including medical doctors, researchers and experienced Wikimedians. This event led to eight article creations and the expansion of 461 articles. Similar events are being planned for bridging the knowledge gaps related to vaccine safety on Wikipedia next year, also in different languages.
If you are interested in leaving feedback about the Vaccine Safety Project, please do so on the talk page of the project here.
This blog post is about my experiences in preparing for the practical part of the medical license exam in Sweden. I have provided relevant links and study tips for the practical exam in this post.
Everyone who passed the theory part of the exam is eligible to appear for the practical part. One is eligible to appear for the exam for a maximum of three times. The exam happens four to five times an year and the exam centres are Umeå and Göteborg (although they say Göteborg for all practical purposes, the exam actually happens in the Mölndals sjukhus, which is located in the Mölndal kommun). You get your turn to participate in the exam based on a priority ordering – those who cleared the theory earlier than you get a higher queuing time and they get prioritised in the waiting list for the practical exam. Thus, it is possible that you will need to wait for around 3-6 months for getting a chance to appear for the practical exam after clearing the theory part. Meanwhile, it is important to not lose patience and study systematically.
When I went through the practical exam questions, I figured out that I could learn easily if I have study partners. The practical exam is all about testing how you approach a patient, and this approach differs from country to country. You’ll need to learn the Swedish way of approaching patients. If you study on your own, chances are that you sometimes reinforce your own mistakes by misinterpreting the answer scheme or by not understanding some subtle aspects of the questions. Having study partners means that they can see the question from a fresh perspective and they can bring new ideas to the table. They can also correct your mistakes and teach you the topics that you are weak at. So, I strongly recommend that you prepare for the practical exam with study partners, at least half of your study time. From my experience, studying as a group online via Zoom also works well. The ideal group size according to me is three. If you are more than 5-6 people, it gets messier, so it is better to split yourselves into two groups of three people.
You can find all previously asked questions here (link requires UmU Moodle access). Ensure that you also go through the latest previous questions asked at Umeå University for their medical students which they update here (Moodle access required). I was late to find out about this and I regret that I did not go through it sooner. There were instances where these questions were repeated at the practical exam. Having contacts with those attending the KUL program at Umeå University is also helpful as they are likely to have access to a lot of reading material for the practical exam. The exit test for KUL program is the Day 1 (6 minute stations) of the practical exam, so the KUL students are essentially preparing for the same exam as you.
Most of the questions and concepts are repeatedly asked, so ensure that you study these repeating questions thoroughly. However, there will be new questions too, so it is important that you have a basic understanding about the commonly found disease conditions in Sweden. Read all the previous questions, and then make a clear plan about how you will approach each of the cases. Chart out a timeline for what topics you will study and when. Find study partners from the facebook or telegram group for foreign doctors in Sweden. There is also a Whatsapp group for Indian doctors in Sweden (contact me for details). It is also possible to go to Moodle>Kunskapsprov för läkare>Deltagare and search for those registered for the exam by using the keyword ‘Anmälda till praktisk prov’ and find those students who will appear for the exam with you. Find the profiles of these people and write direct messages to them.
It is good if you have access to KTC (every University has one, check at the University hospital near you), where you can practice clinical examination on dummies and perform procedures such as catheterising and diluting medication. You can buy suturing set, Peak Expiratory Flow Meter, BP monitor, knee hammer, tuning fork and other common devices online on Amazon.de or Wish.com. I also bought a Mini Anne from HLR-butiken to practice HLR. Buying all these stuff costs a lot of money, but my thought was that it was better to spend money and pass, rather than to save money and fail the exam.
You can email to the head of the departments at hospitals near you and ask if they can allow you to practice with ophthalmoscope, slit lamp and otoscope. This is easily said than done, as hospitals do not want to take the trouble of having a student hanging around. Most people I know accomplished this by working as a nursing assistant or as a researcher at some hospital, building contacts there, and using these contacts to go to the relevant department. With COVID-19 around, it has become harder to get an observership, so try to learn as much as you can from videos online. I sought help from my fellow doctors in India for learning radiology, ophthalmology and ENT. I even visited my medical school in India when I went there for vacation. I met my friends there, and discussed some concepts that I was doubtful about. I practiced HLR, BP monitoring, neurology and orthopedics examination using my colleagues at the research lab as ‘patients’.
There are some training programs for students appearing for the practical exam. Region Uppsala is conducting a training program for two days that covers the important topics for the exam. Lund University is also conducting a training program in Kristianstad for one week. Both these programs prioritise students who live in the same region (Uppsala or Skåne). I applied for both the programs, but got rejected, possibly because I live in a different region. Follow the news on the telegram group for foreign doctors in Sweden to get to know when it is time to apply for these courses. I also applied at the HLR centrum in Götenburg to participate in the A-HLR training, but I was rejected with the reason that they have no obligation to teach those employed outside of VG Region.
I appeared for the practical exam in November 2019 and failed for 2.5 marks (I got 127.5/200). It was a near miss, and I evaluate that the reasons for my failure were as follows:
- I studied in a group, but we did not practice the questions by role play. We simply sat down and read the questions and answers. Without role play, it was hard to learn to make quick decisions and to hold an uninterrupted conversation with the patient. I also was poor at time management.
- My Swedish wasn’t quite good. I was doing my SAS-G course when I appeared for the practical exam. I could understand what the patient said, but it was hard for me to find the right words to answer them back. The end result was that I spent more time finding the right words than addressing the patient’s concern.
- I did not repeat and reinforce many questions and answers. There is not enough time to think and plan while you are at the exam, so you have to have a clear plan about what exactly you will do for each question.
- I thought that I will get a clear fail if I give a wrong diagnosis, therefore I talked less and said only differential diagnoses. I always sounded unsure. You should not be afraid to say what exactly you suspect. If you are wrong, it doesn’t matter much unless you make a grave error. It is better to speak more than to speak less because the evaluator is looking for keywords in the conversation. You only get points if you say exactly those points and keywords specified in the answer sheet. Ensure that you speak loudly, because you don’t get marks if the evaluator does not hear you.
- I appeared for the exam while I was working full-time and doing part time Swedish course. I worked at the lab until the previous day of the exam. This wasn’t a good idea as it is important to revise all the important topics during the last two weeks before the exam.
- Those who appeared for the exam in 2017-18 will tell you that it is a breeze. At that time, some people prepared for less than a month and passed the exam. The exam has become tougher overtime and the situation in 2017 does not hold true now anymore. I would suggest at least three months of preparation, especially if you do not have experience in internal medicine or family medicine. It has become a fashion now to claim that one has finished learning Swedish and cleared both theory and practicals in the shortest possible time (six months or less). I would say that it is nearly impossible. Please don’t plan your career based on such exaggerated claims. I have known people who came to Sweden on visas lasting less than one year, and had to return to their home country after the expiration of the visa without even clearing the theory exam. A reasonable timeframe for the whole process (learning Swedish + clearing kunskapsprov) is two to three years.
After my first failure, my plan was to appear for the practical exam again in April 2020, but the exam got cancelled due to COVID-19. I had to wait until September 2020 to appear for the exam again. I had finished my PhD by then, but my Swedish classes were still ongoing. I also worked on the Författningskunskap course on Swedish law and ethics in the meantime. I studied for the exam with two other students and passed this time with 154/200 marks. The cut-off was 141 marks.
There is no one central place where you can get all materials needed for preparing for the exam. You need to search for them on the internet and ask fellow students to find them. Here are some reading material that turned out to be very useful for me:
- 200 sidor : An amateurish study material prepared by students
- OSCE by subject : OSCE questions divided up by subject
- OSCE material from Sahlgrenska: Material used by students at Sahlgrenska. Many students say that the exam at Göteborg is tougher than the exam at Umeå. I got the same feeling when I compared the past questions from Umeå and Göteborg. Umeå has a long legacy of conducting OSCE type exams, while Göteborg usually conducts oral case discussions for medical students.
Here are the videos that I have used for learning new techniques:
- Videos of a mock OSCE exam, Gynecological examination, respiratory system examination, diabetes foot examination, PEF use, rectoscopy and ABI examination are given on Läkareprogrammets filmer section of Moodle via UmUPlay.
- Nervous system examination here.
- Videos of orthopaedics examination from Lund University here.
- Videos of psychiatry examination here.
- Catheterisation video here.
- ABCDE simulation video here.
- Neurology and orthopaedics special tests on Physiopedia here (English).
- Ophthalmology tropias and phorias explained in simple language here and here (English).
- SBAR method for communication here.
- Fracture management here.
- HLR here.
- Helmich manöver here.
- ABG here (English).
- Direct ophthalmology here.
- Reaction Level Scale here.
- Audiogram here.
- Cardiac USG interpretation here (English).
- Emergency tracheostomy here (English).
- Examination of an unconscious patient here (English).
- Dix Hallpike’s manöver here.
- Epley’s manöver here.
- Weber v/s Rinne test here (English).
- Slit lamp examination here (English).
- HINTS exam here (English).
Here are some websites and books I used for learning concepts:
- OSCE Umeå : Question bank of previous questions of students at Umeå University
- Internetmedicin for understanding difficult concepts in the answering scheme.
- Läkamedelsboken and Hypocampus for verifying the approach to difficult cases
- På Klink has detailed descriptions, so it is best to focus on the summary boxes in the book.
- Procedurhandboken for knowing which types of procedures they expect you to know. Go to the tab innehållsförtechning in the link to the book given here and try to learn all the procedures listed there. No exam yet had procedures from outside of this book.
- Akut Medicin book was useful in thinking systematically around the differential diagnoses.
- Radiology Master Class for radiology.
- Ophthalmoscopy pictures (enter any random number as patient number and student number)
Other general tips:
- The exam consists of two days of hard work, so sleep and eat well. One of the fellow doctors who attended the exam with me fainted towards the end.
- All ‘patients’ at the exam are actors. You will not meet a real patient. All actors act extremely well.
- All cases you see at the exam are typical ones. The only atypical ones are the Allmänmedicin station for 14 minutes, where the patient has a range of symptoms and concerns.
- Follow three Fs whenever possible. Communication with the patient is very important in Sweden. You could fail at professional utvekling station not because you don’t know the concepts, but because you did not communicate well enough.
- Most people I know got lower points than expected, or even failed at HLR station. Take it seriously and train with friends many times. Many things can go wrong here, so be sure to know it inside out.
- Alcohol history, antibiotic allergy, decreased quality of life and stress are important questions that can cost you points if you miss them.
- The evaluator for the most part will be silent. You have to manage the situation on your own and explain your diagnosis to the patient in simple language as if you were a real doctor.
NB: I do not endorse any of the study material given in this post. It is possible that some of these sources contain wrong or outdated information. Please use your discretion to find out the latest and correct examination and management protocols.
Related posts in this series:
Last month was eventful not only in terms of my personal and professional life, but also in terms of my volunteering work. In March-April, I have been regularly writing articles on English Wikipedia about COVID-19, mostly about the medical aspects, issues surrounding the impact of the pandemic and people in leadership in responding to COVID-19.
I am used to doing everything in a structured way on Wikipedia, but COVID-19 changed everything. I usually take days and weeks to think about a new project on Wikipedia, then create a time line and a work plan, and then work systematically on each aspect of the work. But in a crisis situation like a pandemic, this level of structuring is not possible, so I am helping out wherever help is needed. Nowadays, I log in to Wikipedia in the morning, read the updates about the pandemic from there and then go searching for topics that are missing. Given the recentness of the pandemic, there is usually a lot to write about, especially about its socio-economic impact. In addition, the tables about the disease epidemiology need to be updated, new regulations and lockdowns passed in various countries need to be added and the biographies of notable individuals working on COVID-19 need to be created. I work on all these aspects.
I get my references from all kinds of sources, thanks to most journals making their COVID-19 research papers open access. Many magazines and newsletters like The Economist have made their articles related to COVID-19 subscription-free. The WHO, UNPFA, UNICEF, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and many other organisations have also created several documents related to COVID-19 and the impact of the pandemic on various spheres of life. I have generously drawn content from all these sources for creating and expanding articles on Wikipedia.
I have mostly been following the World Health Organisation (WHO) for knowing the latest disease updates, so I mostly bring information from the WHO to Wikipedia. As of 9 April 2020, I have written around 25 articles related to COVID-19 on Wikipedia. The most popular one so far is 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Kerala. The article I am most proud of is Gendered Impact of the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. The article which I think would be the most useful is List of unproven methods against COVID-19, given the misinformation circulating about the disease. Nearly 700 edits I made on English Wikipedia thus far are on articles related to COVID-19. The articles started by me have been viewed around 35,000 times every day during the last one month.
What am I going to do next? We are still in this pandemic and the situation is rapidly evolving (for better or for worse, we don’t know yet). So, I am going to take everything one day at a time, doing what is important for today, not making any long term plans. I will continue to do what I am doing right now on Wikipedia, until help is no longer needed. As a Wikipedian, doctor and researcher, this is the least I can do to empower people around the world to get open and reliable information about COVID-19.
Stay safe, y’all.
We live in the era of information overload and misinformation. Ever since coronavirus started being a cause for panic among the public, a lot of misinformation regarding it started circulating in the internet. How to identify if a given information is true or not?
- Check the source of the information. If the information you found comes from a website, check the URL to find out if it is a reliable organization. Some of the sources that you can rely on are the governments of your countries, World Health Organization and established newspapers. Even Wikipedia has reliable information related to coronavirus pandemic. This is made possible by thousands of volunteers, including experts, monitoring pages related to coronavirus and updating the pages for accurate information. There is a Wikipedia page for Misinformation related to the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. Several instances of misinformation have been recorded here.
If the information you got is via a social media platform such as Whatsapp, you should be careful about its authenticity. Always ask the sender for the origin of the message if you are unsure if it is true. Encourage everyone to share trusted information only.
- Extraordinary claims need extraordinary evidence : If you find a post that says that the the cure for coronavirus disease is found, or makes similar tall claims, it is likely that they are wrong. If a vaccine or medicine for coronavirus gets indeed made, it will be all over the place, not just in that single forwarded message.
- If you find something like “The truth behind coronavirus pandemic” or such that has the word ‘truth’ in it, it is likely that they are sharing an unpopular opinion, and therefore, it is likely to be false. Those saying the truth don’t need to affirm that they are indeed saying the truth, but liars need to do it from time to time to make sure their lies are spreading.
- If the coronavirus-related post deals with supporting an ideology or a religion, it may be false. In the zeal of projecting one’s ideology or religion first, people tend to create and spread all kinds of news, including fake ones. Neither capitalism or communism has figured out how to control coronavirus spread. Neither Hinduism nor Islam has solutions for preventing disease transmission.
- Take extra care when you SHARE information. Only share the posts that you know are true. Don’t be a part of the fake news chain.
Once you have learnt Swedish upto around SFI-D (between B1 and B2 levels, if you are following CEFR), I would suggest that you start going through the past years’ questions of the theory part of the medical license exam (kunskapsprov för läkare utanför EU). You can find the past questions here. It is likely that you don’t understand many terms, but you might be able to understand something at least. Medical vocabulary in Swedish is quite similar to that of English, so if you have understanding of Swedish grammar, learning medical terminology in Swedish would not take so much time.
To start with, you can translate the past questions to English in order to understand how tough it is. You can upload the pdf document to Google translate to get an English translation. My experience was that the theory exam in Sweden was easier than the post-graduate admission exam (NEET) in India. It is also less intensive in terms of having to memorize concepts. The medical license exam in Sweden focuses more on the basic concepts and practical applications of fundamental principles. This means that a good number of questions are case discussions, where you are asked to choose the most correct option about the diagnosis or management of a particular patient. Most often, the cases have typical signs and symptoms. Sometimes, the question only gives you hints about the patient’s symptoms, and ask you to choose a suitable treatment. In that case, it is upto you to work out the diagnosis first, consider the situation (if you are in primary care or tertiary care) given in the question and choose a diagnosis that is most appropriate for the situation. For example, the question might be about managing a patient who came with hemiparesis and slurred speech in primary care. First, you need to work out the diagnosis as stroke. Then, you need to consider that you are in primary care, and it is therefore not possible to manage the case in your hospital. The right answer would be to send the patient in an ambulance to the tertiary care hospital immediately. On the other hand, if the questions says that you are in a tertiary care, the option of doing thrombolysis might be the correct answer. In order to confuse you, both the options will be given to you. The key to cracking the exam is to visualize the situation in your mind, and then choose the option that sounds the most reasonable for you. Apply your common sense generously.
The theory exam consists of approximately 180 questions divided into three parts : a general part, a clinical part and interpreting a research article. The weightage of subjects can be found in this document. You can see in the document that medicine is the most important subject with 10% of the questions devoted to it. You will need to study pre-clinical subjects as well. I studied First Aid for the USMLE (Step 1) book for the pre-clinical part. This book is very condensed, so whenever I could not understand some concepts, I would look up my old textbooks to read elaborately about that topic. To some extent, Kaplan lecture notes for microbiology and pathology also helped, but I did not read them completely due to lack of time.
For the clinical part, I studied PLABABLE, the mobile app for preparing for the medical license exam in UK. As I was working full time while preparing for the exam, it was good to have the study material in mobile app format for me to study while I am traveling to work. I took longer to read Swedish text than English text, so PLABABLE was good for me since it was in English. In that way, I could grasp the concepts fast. I also subscribed to Hypocampus, but it had detailed descriptions for every disease, so I could not read much of it. There are differences in the ways by which diseases are managed in India and Sweden. In order to be mindful of these differences, I looked up the website internetmedicin to know the current Swedish guidelines. There is also a book and a mobile app called Läkemedelsboken that you can refer for the latest management protocols for common diseases in Sweden. These two resources are huge, so use them only as references. I also discovered two books from the library : Akut medicin and Akut kirurgi. These two books have condensed descriptions of commonly seen cases in Sweden. I used these two books for learning Swedish terms as well as for quick reference. There are similar ‘Akut’ books for orthopedics, radiology, psychiatry etc., but since these subjects were not as important for the exam as medicine and surgery, I did not read them. Sometimes, it was tiresome for me to study during the evening after a full day’s work, in which case I watched Osmosis videos passively while lying on the sofa.
I did not need to study for the research article part of the exam because my day job as a researcher helped me there. The most important parts of the research article are its aim and results (including tables). Make it a practice to read the questions first, and then read the relevant parts of the research article to find out the answer. If you instead read the article in full first, it is likely that you will not have sufficient time for answering the questions.
I think that the key to cracking the exam is to work out as many previously asked questions as possible. There is a lot of material out to study, and you can’t memorize all of them. You will need to prioritize some topics over the other, and you need to be familiar with past questions in order to know which topics are important. The previously asked questions do not repeat, but some subject areas are more frequently asked than others, so make a note of that by solving past question papers. All past questions can be found here. If you have time, solve past TULE and AT questions too. MCQs from Lund University are also in the same pattern as kunskapsprov, so practice them too. Whenever I solved past question papers, I looked up the concepts that I did not know and noted them in a notebook. I made it a practice to revise the contents of the notebook every three days or so.
Some people who were successful in the exam have watched videos on UmUplay (available on your moodle), participated in study-circles (find out if there is a study circle in your city) and attended the completion program for doctors educated outside of EU. I have not done any of these, and I studied alone. I studied only for two months or so, that too while working full time as a PhD candidate. But I had the habit of reading medical textbooks, popular science books and watching medicine related videos. Although I did this for fun, this habit helped me to keep my knowledge updated. Therefore, I did not need to study much for the exam. But even then, my first reaction after the exam day was that I would definitely fail. Fortunately for me, I passed the exam at the first attempt in May 2019. My score was 65.2%.
Related posts in this series:
This is the continuation of the post Moving to Sweden as a doctor : PhD admission. In this post, I will discuss my experiences in studying Swedish language.
All people who have a personal number in Sweden have the right to learn Swedish language. If you are a temporary or permanent resident in Sweden, you get a personal number, and that enables you to learn Swedish language free of cost. You can choose to go either to Folksuniversitiet or to SFI for learning Swedish (some courses in Folksuniversitiet are paid courses). Both these institutions teach Swedish, but in different ways. Folksuniversitiet follows the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and has courses starting from A1 to C2 level. At Folksuniversitiet, you need to have cleared the exam for C1 level to be able to practice as a doctor in Sweden. If you go the SFI route, you do SFI-C and SFI-D courses. SFI-C is roughly equivalent to 5th standard level of Swedish and SFI-D is equivalent to 7th standard. People without secondary education start at SFI-A, but you as a doctor has got University education, and you are therefore eligible to start at SFI-C directly.
Once you finish SFI-D, you can start ‘Svenska som ändraspråk (SAS)’ course. While SFI consists of basic level courses, SAS enables you to learn Swedish as a second language. SAS has various levels : SAS-G, SAS-1, SAS-2 and SAS-3. SAS-G consists of four sub-levels. If you performed well in the final exam of SFI-D, you can go directly to the third or the fourth level, so it is important to prepare well for SFI-D if you would like to finish studying Swedish fast. SAS-3 is equivalent to having learnt Swedish at 12th standard level. To work as a doctor in Sweden, you need to complete SAS-3. Clearing SAS-3 would also mean that you are eligible to take University level courses in Swedish language. When you start practicing as a doctor, you might want to study short University courses as a part of continued education. Nearly all courses are in Swedish, so it is good for you to clear SAS-3 rather than to clear C1 from Folksuniversitiet. In addition, the completion course for doctors from outside Sweden only accepts SAS-3, and not C1. So, even if SAS-3 seems to take longer time than C1, I would say it is worth the effort. It is likely that you have waiting times between passing one SAS course and joining another. My recommendation is to study Swedish during the waiting time and appear for the SAS exam directly if possible. Most kommuns allow you to appear for the SAS exam without having to go to the course. If you are in Göteborg, you can apply for the SAS exam directly here against a fee of 500 SEK.
It takes around 2 years to learn Swedish if you learn intensively. I studied part time, so it took longer. Starting SAS-1, you have the possibility to do distance course. This was helpful for me because I could now study and do the assignments during weekends. You need to show the proof for Swedish proficiency only when you apply for the medical license, so you are allowed to take the medical license exam (kunskapsprov för läkare utanför EU/EEA) before you have finished studying Swedish. I passed the theory part of the medical license exam while I was still doing SAS-G course, so my advice is to start preparing for the medical license exam as soon as you finish SFI-D. I will write about preparing for the medical license exam in the next post.
I have been receiving several phone calls and messages from doctors who want to move to Sweden. Most of them made the choice because their spouse is already in Sweden, while some others want to move to Sweden in search of good career opportunities, possibility to do research and quality lifestyle. When I started getting two or three queries every week or so, I decided that I write this blog post. If you have been directed to this blog post by me, please read it completely and ask me only follow-up questions. Thank you for understanding.
How and why did I move to Sweden?
I decided to move to Sweden for my then fiancé, who is now my life partner. While we met in 2015, I was doing my house-surgeoncy (internship) in India. My partner was doing his PhD in Sweden at that time. Besides this reason, I knew that post-graduate studies in India would mean 24*7 hardwork, stress, working in resource poor settings and zero fun. I was interested in volunteering for Wikipedia, painting and reading books in general. I knew that I will have to give up all these things I love in order to make my career as a specialist doctor in India.
I was interested in research, but I was good at clinical practice too. I didn’t have any past experience in research, but I had done my mandatory research project for MBBS with enthusiasm. I had assisted Wikipedians and post-graduates to do research. Opportunities for research were sparse in India, and most of them came without any funding or mentorship. While we were discussing career, my partner pointed out that I could try doing research in Sweden. I started gathering information about this possibility, and found that my MBBS from India is considered equivalent to a master’s degree (not specialist degree) in Sweden, because it offers a syllabus similar to the MD program in Sweden. Please note that MD is the basic medical degree in Sweden, equivalent to MBBS in India. When you specialize in a subspeciality in Sweden, you don’t get any extra degree, but you will be called as a specialist doctor in that subspeciality. For example, when you finish medical school in Sweden, you get an MD degree. Suppose you specialize in general medicine later on, your degree becomes MD (General Medicine).
I figured out that PhD admission in Sweden requires 4.5 years of university education in the relevant subject. Some PhD positions had specific requirements such as that the student should know fluent Swedish, that the student should have relevant experience in animal research and so forth. The application can be made free of cost, but please be aware that most PhD positions are highly competitive. The link to the application portal of Gothenburg University can be found here. It is not uncommon that as many as 200 applicants apply for one position. Fortunately for me, there were only around 30 applicants who applied for the PhD position that I later got selected for. Many applicants are likely to have a specialist degree in the subject area, so you have to show in your CV and letter of motivation that you have some unique skills that is useful for that particular PhD project. If you want to see what a CV and letter of motivation (LOM) looks like, please leave a comment in the comment box below with your e-mail ID and I shall send my CV and LOM to you.
If you are a medical doctor, you can choose to study either pre-clinical or clinical subjects. There are usually more research opportunities in pre-clinical subjects than clinical subjects. Some projects require that you have experience working with animals or cell cultures. When you apply for pre-clinical subjects, be aware that you are competing with those who have a masters in that particular topic. For example, an applicant with masters in microbiology is likely to have more knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine than you. Clinical researches usually involve working with patient data. If your project needs that you have patient contact, it is very likely that knowing Swedish is a requirement for application. Some projects might require that you have a Swedish medical license, because you might also have to involve in examining or treating patients. A lot of information about the project will be available on the application page, but you can also e-mail the responsible Professor and ask for more details if something is unclear. Don’t always expect fast replies, though.
It is the Professor’s discretion to choose the person they think is the most suitable for the PhD position. You are more likely to get a position if you know academic English, have published research papers in the past, worked as a research assistant or have any other relevant experience related to the research project. Make sure to write about these in your CV or letter of motivation. Knowing Swedish language is a plus, especially if you are applying for PhDs in clinical sciences. In clinical sciences, you will often need to communicate with patients for data collection, which is why Swedish is usually an important requirement for clinical PhDs. In my case, Swedish was not mandatory because a good part of data collection had already been done. Professors usually take one to two months after the application deadline to find the right candidate. Most PhD vacancies are sent out around January (after Christmas) and September (after summer vacation), but you can always find a few vacancies on the Gothenburg University’s job portal regardless of the time of the year.
I had two rounds of interviews over Skype. In the first interview, I was asked about general things in life, my interests, my future plans, my experiences as a doctor, my reasons for choosing an academic career and so forth. It felt more like a friendly discussion than like an interview. I was asked to read through the thesis of a past student before I appeared for the second round of the interview. I read through the thesis and found it interesting, although many terms and concepts were new to me. I looked up as many unknown concepts as I could. The second round interview was more focused on my knowledge related to medicine and research, although I can’t remember being asked any tough questions. A week after the interview, I was informed that I got the job.
After the successful interview, I was asked to send my original certificates to the University for verification. My partner was returning to Sweden from India at that time, so I sent the certificates with him. It took around a month for them to complete the verification process and I was informed about the PhD admission officially from the University. I had applied for a spouse visa to move to Sweden at that time, so I switched it to PhD visa. I did this so that my visa application would be processed faster, because the waiting time for the PhD visa was shorter than the spouse visa. You can check the present waiting times for all visa categories here.
The duration of the PhD program varies depending on whether you perform lab duties and teaching or not. I got a 4 year program that does not involve teaching or lab work. It is not unusual to have 5 year and 5.5 year programs. It is wise to choose a longer program with teaching included if you are planning to continue in academia, because, with teaching, you can gain the relevant experience needed to get promoted as an assistant professor in future. If you instead plan to go back to the clinic or to the industry, a 4 year program would be more suitable for you.
I applied in November 2015, got interviewed in early February 2016 and got accepted for the position in late February 2016. My certificates got verified in March 2016. I then waited for two more months to get my PhD visa, and started working as a PhD student from June 2016.
These days I am illustrating Wikipedia articles with images related to medicine. Sometimes, the existing image(s) on an article are too old, so I would want to add a newer, higher resolution image by replacing the old one. Some articles do not have images at all. A major problem for me was in finding the right image for the given article. Wikipedia accepts images/media that are CC-BY-SA or lower, so I had to go through the existing image repositories to find out those with the right license for Wikipedia. I decided to tabulate some of the image repositories that have medical content, along with the license they are shared under. I hope this would be useful not only for me, but for everyone else who are looking for free images related to medicine. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list, I have only included the repositories that I know of.
|Creative Commons search||CC-varied||Datasets from these collections are found on CC-search.|
|All Free Photos||–||Free photos of all kinds|
|Burst Images||Public Domain||Free photos of all kinds|
|Medpix||All Rights Reserved||Medpix is a repository of medical cases run by the NIH, USA. The images are free for personal use, but need permission from the authors for any use other than personal. Contact the authors directly for permission.|
|Radiopedia||CC-BY-NC-SA||Collection of radiology images. Copyright rests with the author of the image.|
|Flickr Commons||CC varied||Media from Flickr Commons also shows up on CC search.|
|British Library||–||Images from British Library, UK|
|ASH Image bank||Fair Use||A collection of hematology images. Login needed, free account creation.|
|Centre for Disease Control and Prevention||Mostly Public Domain||Images related to healthcare, diseases, health promotion etc.|
|Brain Biodiversity Bank||All rights reserved||Altas of human brain. Radiology images and 3D movies available. Free re-use permitted, contact the authors for re-use permissions.|
|US National Library of Medicine||Fair Use||Contain images related to. medicine. Obtain permission from the website for re-use. Permission shall be granted on a case-by-case basis. Some images are CC.|
|National Eye Institute||CC varied||Some images are CC-BY. Results can be found from CC-search.|
|Duke University Digital Repository||CC-BY-NC-SA||Contains advertisements and handouts of medical products|
|Visible Body||All Rights Reserved||Some content is available without subscription. Contains 3D anatomy resources.|
|3D Embryo Atlas||CC-BY-NC-ND||Media related to embryology|
|Bio Atlas||Use with attribution||Contains high resolution histology and histopathology images of humans and animals|
|CAOM||–||Histopathology slides, pages are slow to load. From Poznan|
|Brain-Maps||–||Histo- and gross images of brains of humans and animals|
|Cancer Digital Archive||–||Image repository of oncopathology|
|Aurora M-scope||Most images in Public Domain||Contains histopathology slides. Needs a special software for opening the files in high resolution.|
|Heidelberg University||All Rights Reserved||Contains educational images related to pathology|
|Pathobin||–||A platform for uploading pathology slides. Copyright lies with the uploader.|
|National Institute of Health, USA||Public Domain||Images are on Flickr, hence available using CC-search.|
|Europeana||CC varied||Contains media related to history of medicine and natural history|
|Fossil Forum||–||Collection of fossils. Individual uploaders hold the copyright. Fair use permitted.|
|Medillsb||Varied||Website of the association of medical illustrators. Contact individual authors for re-use.|
|Medical Graphics DE||CC-BY-ND||Illustrations related to medicine.|
|LifeScienceDB||CC-BY-SA||Create your own photos and videos of human anatomy|
|Neuroanatomy||CC-BY-SA-NC||Neuroanatomy media. From University of British Columbia. Contains 360 degree views of the brain, MRIs etc.|
|Dollar Street||CC-BY-SA||Collection of everyday objects, people, families showing socioeconomic status of people around the world.|
|Cell Image Library||CC-varied||Mostly public domain images of cells.|
|Heal Collection||CC varied||Images for medical education.|
|Stanford Medical Library||CC varied||Images related to medicine from Stanford.|
|National Cancer Institute||CC-varied||Contains media related to cancer.|
|Histology Atlas||CC-BY-NC-ND||Histology images|
|Audilab||CC-BY-NC-SA||3D images related to anatomy|
|Sketchfab||CC-BY-NC-SA||Illustrations related to human body|
|Open Access Biomedical Search Engine||–||Can perform advanced search by License type|
|Science Images of Australia||CC-BY||Natural history, medicine images|
|Library of Congress collection||Varied||History of medicine|
|The noun project||CC-BY||Contains icons for general use and those related to medicine|
|Somersault Images||CC-BY-SA-NC||Illustrations related to medicine|
|Smart Servier||CC-BY||Illustrations related to medicine|
|Ghorayeb Images||CC-BY-NC=ND||Collection of images from ENT|
|Ecure Me||All Rights Reserved||Illustrations and photos of diseases|
|University of California||All Rights Reserved||Images of clinical signs and symptoms|
|University of Iowa||All Rights Reserved||Images of dermatological conditions|
|Internet Pathology Laboratory||All Rights Reserved||Images related to pathology|
|Atlas of endoscopy||All Rights Reserved||Images related to endoscopy/gastroenerology|
This is the essay and poster on Gandhian Philosophy in Neurorehabilitation prepared for the 10th World Congress in Neurorehabilitation, Mumbai, India.
Neurorehabilitation is a complex process that involves minimization of neural damage and compensation of limitation of functions arising from neural disorders. New insights on neurorehabilitation can be gathered when observed from a Gandhian point of view. The perspectives, ideals, and vision of Gandhi are relevant today that one can find many parallels of principles from his life that are now used in medical practice worldwide.
Simplicity is prominently reflected in Gandhi’s ideas and way of living. His affinity to simplicity was evident even during his early days in England, when he cut down all unwanted expenses and chose to live in a modest setting. Gandhi firmly believed that happiness and prosperity are not bound to materialistic things but are derived from internal peace and satisfaction. He was against over-consumption and affinity to material possessions. The Gandhian virtue of simplicity has an important role in neurorehabilitation where the focus is on patient’s personal satisfaction and fulfilment. Oftentimes, the simplest of all interventions might be the most therapeutic to the patient. Some of the most complex life decisions of the patient can be changed simply by offering new perspectives. In neurorehabilitation, some of the most effective interventions such as mirror therapy and physical exercise are cheap, simple and inexpensive.
Gandhi had a holistic approach to his development as a complete social being. He did not divide his personal and private life into watertight compartments and mixed social, political and religious work harmoniously. He also believed that all life goals should be defined in such a way that it should make progress not only to one’s lifestyle, but also to one’s family, nation and the world. This philosophy of holism is one of the pillars of modern neurorehabilitation. A neurorehabilitation professional not only caters for the physical and psychological aspects of the patient, but also for the social and cultural dimensions of his/her personality. Neurorehabilitation involves working with not only the patients, but also their families. It also draws no boundaries between personal needs and social needs. Neurorehabilitation deals with several aspects of the patient’s life including nutrition, mobility, cognition etc. Thus, quality rehabilitation can be administered only by considering the patient as a whole, and not as a sum of organs.
Inclusivity and diversity were Gandhi’s core values. The ‘Hind Swaraj’ of his vision was the one where people thrived and cooperated despite differences in caste, creed, gender or religion. The same vision is applicable to neurorehabilitation in which all medical practitioners, caregivers, the family, and community have to work together with the patient to bring him/her to the fullest possible potential. There cannot be any hierarchy in terms of work division and everyone’s role is crucial in rehabilitating the patient. Gandhi emphasized that one’s action should be directed at the well-being of the poorest and weakest man (woman). This principle is of great importance in neurorehabilitation where the healthcare professional has to deliver the most care to the neediest and weakest patient.
Gandhi warned his followers that ‘healing should be its own reward’. In the present day world, medical care is commercialized and monetary reward is the primary reason for those involved in the healthcare industry. Gandhi had foreseen this problem as early as in 1925 when medical science was in its infancy. In neurorehabilitation where often debilitated patients might need lifelong treatment, it is inhumane to be acutely business-minded. Gandhi had also noted that science without humanity is the root of violence. In neurorehabilitation, the focus of the researcher and practitioner is on being compassionate, empathetic and tolerant. These humane values are emphasized more in neurorehabilitation than in other branches of medicine.
Gandhi had a life-long commitment to his ideals. His lifelong dedication to ahimsa and satyagraha are well-known and are praised by scholars and disciples alike. Similarly, in neurorehabilitation, the patients often need life-long care. Hence, neurorehabilitation becomes an integral part of the lifestyle of the patient. The patient and the healthcare professionals should work hand-in-hand, often throughout the lifetime of the patient to meet the goals of the therapy. Gandhian value of satyagraha encompasses the same philosophy: being patient, working consistently, and not stopping until the goal is reached.
The ideal community as envisioned by Gandhi is a reformed one where each individual works harmoniously to produce a self-sustaining economy. This aspect of community involvement is well-established in neurorehabilitation. The ‘social safety net’ provided by the state, and the ‘social cushion’ provided by the community are very important for patients needing neurorehabilitation. Community support and social awareness regarding neurorehabilitation are essential for enforcing policy change for accessible public spaces, pension plans and return-to-work policies.
It is evident that Gandhian philosophy is closely in alignment with the core principles of rehabilitation. Gandhi’s ideas and practices should continue to inspire healthcare professionals to seek provisions for applying ahimsa in various facets of their work in neurorehabilitation. In current times of intense competition, we, the healthcare professionals, must embrace Gandhi’s integrity and avoid the temptation to forego morality and empathy.