How to identify misinformation related to coronavirus?

We live in the era of information overload and misinformation. Ever since coronavirus started being a cause for panic among the public, a lot of misinformation regarding it started circulating in the internet. How to identify if a given information is true or not?

  1. Check the source of the information. If the information you found comes from a website, check the URL to find out if it is a reliable organization. Some of the sources that you can rely on are the governments of your countries, World Health Organization and established newspapers. Even Wikipedia has reliable information related to coronavirus pandemic. This is made possible by thousands of volunteers, including experts, monitoring  pages related to coronavirus and updating the pages for accurate information. There is a Wikipedia page for Misinformation related to the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. Several instances of misinformation have been recorded here.
    If the information you got is via a social media platform such as Whatsapp, you should be careful about its authenticity. Always ask the sender for the origin of the message if you are unsure if it is true. Encourage everyone to share trusted information only.
  2. Extraordinary claims need extraordinary evidence : If you find a post that says that the the cure for coronavirus disease is found, or makes similar tall claims, it is likely that they are wrong. If a vaccine or medicine for coronavirus gets indeed made, it will be all over the place, not just in that single forwarded message.
  3. If you find something like “The truth behind coronavirus pandemic” or such that has the word ‘truth’ in it, it is likely that they are sharing an unpopular opinion, and therefore, it is likely to be false. Those saying the truth don’t need to affirm that they are indeed saying the truth, but liars need to do it from time to time to make sure their lies are spreading.
  4. If the coronavirus-related post deals with supporting an ideology or a religion, it may be false. In the zeal of projecting one’s ideology or religion first, people tend to create and spread all kinds of news, including fake ones. Neither capitalism or communism has figured out how to control coronavirus spread. Neither Hinduism nor Islam has solutions for preventing disease transmission.
  5. Take extra care when you SHARE information. Only share the posts that you know are true. Don’t be a part of the fake news chain.

Moving to Sweden as a doctor: Medical license exam

Once you have learnt Swedish upto around SFI-D (between B1 and B2 levels, if you are following CEFR), I would suggest that you start going through the past years’ questions of the theory part of the medical license exam (kunskapsprov för läkare utanför EU). You can find the past questions here. It is likely that you don’t understand many terms, but you might be able to understand something at least. Medical vocabulary in Swedish is quite similar to that of English, so if you have understanding of Swedish grammar, learning medical terminology in Swedish would not take so much time.

To start with, you can translate the past questions to English in order to understand how tough it is. You can upload the pdf document to Google translate to get an English translation. My experience was that the theory exam in Sweden was easier than the post-graduate admission exam (NEET) in India. It is also less intensive in terms of having to memorize concepts. The medical license exam in Sweden focuses more on the basic concepts and practical applications of fundamental principles. This means that a good number of questions are case discussions, where you are asked to choose the most correct option about the diagnosis or management of a particular patient. Most often, the cases have typical signs and symptoms. Sometimes, the question only gives you hints about the patient’s symptoms, and ask you to choose a suitable treatment. In that case, it is upto you to work out the diagnosis first, consider the situation (if you are in primary care or tertiary care) given in the question and choose a diagnosis that is most appropriate for the situation. For example, the question might be about managing a patient who came with hemiparesis and slurred speech in primary care. First, you need to work out the diagnosis as stroke. Then, you need to consider that you are in primary care, and it is therefore not possible to manage the case in your hospital. The right answer would be to send the patient in an ambulance to the tertiary care hospital immediately. On the other hand, if the questions says that you are in a tertiary care, the option of doing thrombolysis might be the correct answer. In order to confuse you, both the options will be given to you. The key to cracking the exam is to visualize the situation in your mind, and then choose the option that sounds the most reasonable for you. Apply your common sense generously.

The theory exam consists of approximately 180 questions divided into three parts : a general part, a clinical part and interpreting a research article. The weightage of subjects can be found in this document. You can see in the document that medicine is the most important subject with 10% of the questions devoted to it. You will need to study pre-clinical subjects as well. I studied First Aid for the USMLE (Step 1) book for the pre-clinical part. This book is very condensed, so whenever I could not understand some concepts, I would look up my old textbooks to read elaborately about that topic. To some extent, Kaplan lecture notes for microbiology and pathology also helped, but I did not read them completely due to lack of time.

For the clinical part, I studied PLABABLE, the mobile app for preparing for the medical license exam in UK. As I was working full time while preparing for the exam, it was good to have the study material in mobile app format for me to study while I am traveling to work. I took longer to read Swedish text than English text, so PLABABLE was good for me since it was in English. In that way, I could grasp the concepts fast. I also subscribed to Hypocampus, but it had detailed descriptions for every disease, so I could not read much of it. There are differences in the ways by which diseases are managed in India and Sweden. In order to be mindful of these differences, I looked up the website internetmedicin to know the current Swedish guidelines. There is also a book and a mobile app called Läkemedelsboken that you can refer for the latest management protocols for common diseases in Sweden. These two resources are huge, so use them only as references. I also discovered two books from the library : Akut medicin and Akut kirurgi. These two books have condensed descriptions of commonly seen cases in Sweden. I used these two books for learning Swedish terms as well as for quick reference. There are similar ‘Akut’ books for orthopedics, radiology, psychiatry etc., but since these subjects were not as important for the exam as medicine and surgery, I did not read them. Sometimes, it was tiresome for me to study during the evening after a full day’s work, in which case I watched Osmosis videos passively while lying on the sofa.

I did not need to study for the research article part of the exam because my day job as a researcher helped me there. The most important parts of the research article are its aim and results (including tables). Make it a practice to read the questions first, and then read the relevant parts of the research article to find out the answer. If you instead read the article in full first, it is likely that you will not have sufficient time for answering the questions.

I think that the key to cracking the exam is to work out as many previously asked questions as possible. There is a lot of material out to study, and you can’t memorize all of them. You will need to prioritize some topics over the other, and you need to be familiar with past questions in order to know which topics are important. The previously asked questions do not repeat, but some subject areas are more frequently asked than others, so make a note of that by solving past question papers. All past questions can be found here. If you have time, solve past TULE and AT questions too. MCQs from Lund University are also in the same pattern as kunskapsprov, so practice them too. Whenever I solved past question papers, I looked up the concepts that I did not know and noted them in a notebook. I made it a practice to revise the contents of the notebook every three days or so.

Some people who were successful in the exam have watched videos on UmUplay (available on your moodle), participated in study-circles (find out if there is a study circle in your city) and attended the completion program for doctors educated outside of EU. I have not done any of these, and I studied alone. I studied only for two months or so, that too while working full time as a PhD candidate. But I had the habit of reading medical textbooks, popular science books and watching medicine related videos. Although I did this for fun, this habit helped me to keep my knowledge updated. Therefore, I did not need to study much for the exam. But even then, my first reaction after the exam day was that I would definitely fail. Fortunately for me, I passed the exam at the first attempt in May 2019. My score was 65.2%.

Related posts in this series:

  1. Moving to Sweden as a doctor: Learning Swedish
  2. Moving to Sweden as a doctor: PhD admission

Moving to Sweden as a doctor : Learning Swedish

This is the continuation of the post Moving to Sweden as a doctor : PhD admission. In this post, I will discuss my experiences in studying Swedish language.

All people who have a personal number in Sweden have the right to learn Swedish language. If you are a temporary or permanent resident in Sweden, you get a personal number, and that enables you to learn Swedish language free of cost. You can choose to go either to Folksuniversitiet or to SFI for learning Swedish (some courses in Folksuniversitiet are paid courses). Both these institutions teach Swedish, but in different ways. Folksuniversitiet follows the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and has courses starting from A1 to C2 level. At Folksuniversitiet, you need to have cleared the exam for C1 level to be able to practice as a doctor in Sweden. If you go the SFI route, you do SFI-C and SFI-D courses. SFI-C is roughly equivalent to 5th standard level of Swedish and SFI-D is equivalent to 7th standard. People without secondary education start at SFI-A, but you as a doctor has got University education, and you are therefore eligible to start at SFI-C directly.

Once you finish SFI-D, you can start ‘Svenska som ändraspråk (SAS)’ course. While SFI consists of basic level courses, SAS enables you to learn Swedish as a second language. SAS has various levels : SAS-G, SAS-1, SAS-2 and SAS-3. SAS-G consists of four sub-levels. If you performed well in the final exam of SFI-D, you can go directly to the third or the fourth level, so it is important to prepare well for SFI-D if you would like to finish studying Swedish fast. SAS-3 is equivalent to having learnt Swedish at 12th standard level. To work as a doctor in Sweden, you need to complete SAS-3. Clearing SAS-3 would also mean that you are eligible to take University level courses in Swedish language. When you start practicing as a doctor, you might want to  study short University courses as a part of continued education. Nearly all courses are in Swedish, so it is good for you to clear SAS-3 rather than to clear C1 from Folksuniversitiet. In addition, the completion course for doctors from outside Sweden only accepts SAS-3, and not C1. So, even if SAS-3 seems to take longer time than C1, I would say it is worth the effort. It is likely that you have waiting times between passing one SAS course and joining another. My recommendation is to study Swedish during the waiting time and appear for the SAS exam directly if possible. Most kommuns allow you to appear for the SAS exam without having to go to the course. If you are in Göteborg, you can apply for the SAS exam directly here against a fee of 500 SEK.

It takes around 2 years to learn Swedish if you learn intensively. I studied part time, so it took longer. Starting SAS-1, you have the possibility to do distance course. This was helpful for me because I could now study and do the assignments during weekends. You need to show the proof for Swedish proficiency only when you apply for the medical license, so you are allowed to take the medical license exam (kunskapsprov för läkare utanför EU/EEA) before you have finished studying Swedish. I passed the theory part of the medical license exam while I was still doing SAS-G course, so my advice is to start preparing for the medical license exam as soon as you finish SFI-D. I will write about preparing for the medical license exam in the next post.

Free Medical Images Collection

These days I am illustrating Wikipedia articles with images related to medicine. Sometimes, the existing image(s) on an article are too old, so I would want to add a newer, higher resolution image by replacing the old one. Some articles do not have images at all. A major problem for me was in finding the right image for the given article. Wikipedia accepts images/media that are CC-BY-SA or lower, so I had to go through the existing image repositories to find out those with the right license for Wikipedia. I decided to tabulate some of the image repositories that have medical content, along with the license they are shared under. I hope this would be useful not only for me, but for everyone else who are looking for free images related to medicine. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list, I have only included the repositories that I know of.

Source License Notes
Creative Commons search CC-varied Datasets from these collections are found on CC-search.
All Free Photos Free photos of all kinds
Burst Images Public Domain Free photos of all kinds
Medpix All Rights Reserved Medpix is a repository of medical cases run by the NIH, USA. The images are free for personal use, but need permission from the authors for any use other than personal. Contact the authors directly for permission.
Radiopedia CC-BY-NC-SA Collection of radiology images. Copyright rests with the author of the image.
Flickr Commons CC varied Media from Flickr Commons also shows up on CC search.
British Library Images from British Library, UK
ASH Image bank Fair Use A collection of hematology images. Login needed, free account creation.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention Mostly Public Domain Images related to healthcare, diseases, health promotion etc.
Brain Biodiversity Bank All rights reserved Altas of human brain. Radiology images and 3D movies available. Free re-use permitted, contact the authors for re-use permissions.
US National Library of Medicine Fair Use Contain images related to. medicine. Obtain permission from the website for re-use. Permission shall be granted on a case-by-case basis. Some images are CC.
National Eye Institute CC varied Some images are CC-BY. Results can be found from CC-search.
Duke University Digital Repository CC-BY-NC-SA Contains advertisements and handouts of medical products
Visible Body All Rights Reserved Some content is available without subscription. Contains 3D anatomy resources.
3D Embryo Atlas CC-BY-NC-ND Media related to embryology
Bio Atlas Use with attribution Contains high resolution histology and histopathology images of humans and animals
CAOM Histopathology slides, pages are slow to load. From Poznan
Brain-Maps Histo- and gross images of brains of humans and animals
Cancer Digital Archive Image repository of oncopathology
Aurora M-scope Most images in Public Domain Contains histopathology slides. Needs a special software for opening the files in high resolution.
Heidelberg University All Rights Reserved Contains educational images related to pathology
Pathobin A platform for uploading pathology slides. Copyright lies with the uploader.
National Institute of Health, USA Public Domain Images are on Flickr, hence available using CC-search.
Europeana CC varied Contains media related to history of medicine and natural history
Fossil Forum Collection of fossils. Individual uploaders hold the copyright. Fair use permitted.
Medillsb Varied Website of the association of medical illustrators. Contact individual authors for re-use.
Medical Graphics DE CC-BY-ND Illustrations related to medicine.
LifeScienceDB CC-BY-SA Create your own photos and videos of human anatomy
Neuroanatomy CC-BY-SA-NC Neuroanatomy media. From University of British Columbia. Contains 360 degree views of the brain, MRIs etc.
Dollar Street CC-BY-SA Collection of everyday objects, people, families showing socioeconomic status of people around the world.
Cell Image Library CC-varied Mostly public domain images of cells.
Heal Collection CC varied Images for medical education.
Stanford Medical Library CC varied Images related to medicine from Stanford.
National Cancer Institute CC-varied Contains media related to cancer.
Histology Atlas CC-BY-NC-ND Histology images
Audilab CC-BY-NC-SA 3D images related to anatomy
Sketchfab CC-BY-NC-SA Illustrations related to human body
Open Access Biomedical Search Engine Can perform advanced search by License type
Science Images of Australia CC-BY Natural history, medicine images
Library of Congress collection Varied History of medicine
The noun project CC-BY Contains icons for general use and those related to medicine
Somersault Images CC-BY-SA-NC Illustrations related to medicine
Smart Servier CC-BY Illustrations related to medicine
Ghorayeb Images CC-BY-NC=ND Collection of images from ENT
Ecure Me All Rights Reserved Illustrations and photos of diseases
University of California All Rights Reserved Images of clinical signs and symptoms
University of Iowa All Rights Reserved Images of dermatological conditions
Internet Pathology Laboratory All Rights Reserved Images related to pathology
Atlas of endoscopy All Rights Reserved Images related to endoscopy/gastroenerology

Gandhian Philosophy and neurorehabilitation

This is the essay and poster on Gandhian Philosophy in Neurorehabilitation prepared for the 10th World Congress in Neurorehabilitation, Mumbai, India.

Gandhian Philosophy and Neurorehabilitation_Sahlgrenska


 

Neurorehabilitation is a complex process that involves minimization of neural damage and compensation of limitation of functions arising from neural disorders. New insights on neurorehabilitation can be gathered when observed from a Gandhian point of view. The perspectives, ideals, and vision of Gandhi are relevant today that one can find many parallels of principles from his life that are now used in medical practice worldwide.

Simplicity is prominently reflected in Gandhi’s ideas and way of living. His affinity to simplicity was evident even during his early days in England, when he cut down all unwanted expenses and chose to live in a modest setting. Gandhi firmly believed that happiness and prosperity are not bound to materialistic things but are derived from internal peace and satisfaction. He was against over-consumption and affinity to material possessions. The Gandhian virtue of simplicity has an important role in neurorehabilitation where the focus is on patient’s personal satisfaction and fulfilment. Oftentimes, the simplest of all interventions might be the most therapeutic to the patient. Some of the most complex life decisions of the patient can be changed simply by offering new perspectives. In neurorehabilitation, some of the most effective interventions such as mirror therapy and physical exercise are cheap, simple and inexpensive.

Gandhi had a holistic approach to his development as a complete social being. He did not divide his personal and private life into watertight compartments and mixed social, political and religious work harmoniously. He also believed that all life goals should be defined in such a way that it should make progress not only to one’s lifestyle, but also to one’s family, nation and the world. This philosophy of holism is one of the pillars of modern neurorehabilitation. A neurorehabilitation professional not only caters for the physical and psychological aspects of the patient, but also for the social and cultural dimensions of his/her personality. Neurorehabilitation involves working with not only the patients, but also their families. It also draws no boundaries between personal needs and social needs. Neurorehabilitation deals with several aspects of the patient’s life including nutrition, mobility, cognition etc. Thus, quality rehabilitation can be administered only by considering the patient as a whole, and not as a sum of organs.

Inclusivity and diversity were Gandhi’s core values. The ‘Hind Swaraj’ of his vision was the one where people thrived and cooperated despite differences in caste, creed, gender or religion. The same vision is applicable to neurorehabilitation in which all medical practitioners, caregivers, the family, and community have to work together with the patient to bring him/her to the fullest possible potential. There cannot be any hierarchy in terms of work division and everyone’s role is crucial in rehabilitating the patient. Gandhi emphasized that one’s action should be directed at the well-being of the poorest and weakest man (woman). This principle is of great importance in neurorehabilitation where the healthcare professional has to deliver the most care to the neediest and weakest patient.

Gandhi warned his followers that ‘healing should be its own reward’. In the present day world, medical care is commercialized and monetary reward is the primary reason for those involved in the healthcare industry. Gandhi had foreseen this problem as early as in 1925 when medical science was in its infancy. In neurorehabilitation where often debilitated patients might need lifelong treatment, it is inhumane to be acutely business-minded. Gandhi had also noted that science without humanity is the root of violence. In neurorehabilitation, the focus of the researcher and practitioner is on being compassionate, empathetic and tolerant. These humane values are emphasized more in neurorehabilitation than in other branches of medicine.

Gandhi had a life-long commitment to his ideals. His lifelong dedication to ahimsa and satyagraha are well-known and are praised by scholars and disciples alike. Similarly, in neurorehabilitation, the patients often need life-long care. Hence, neurorehabilitation becomes an integral part of the lifestyle of the patient. The patient and the healthcare professionals should work hand-in-hand, often throughout the lifetime of the patient to meet the goals of the therapy. Gandhian value of satyagraha encompasses the same philosophy: being patient, working consistently, and not stopping until the goal is reached.

The ideal community as envisioned by Gandhi is a reformed one where each individual works harmoniously to produce a self-sustaining economy. This aspect of community involvement is well-established in neurorehabilitation. The ‘social safety net’ provided by the state, and the ‘social cushion’ provided by the community are very important for patients needing neurorehabilitation. Community support and social awareness regarding neurorehabilitation are essential for enforcing policy change for accessible public spaces, pension plans and return-to-work policies.

It is evident that Gandhian philosophy is closely in alignment with the core principles of rehabilitation. Gandhi’s ideas and practices should continue to inspire healthcare professionals to seek provisions for applying ahimsa in various facets of their work in neurorehabilitation. In current times of intense competition, we, the healthcare professionals, must embrace Gandhi’s integrity and avoid the temptation to forego morality and empathy.

Travel Quiz Questions

This is the slide deck I prepared for Reverberates Online Quiz (external link to Facebook). They are a bit hard to crack, but if Google is your friend, you might be able to get one clue after the other from the question statements, which you can google separately. Image search may also sometimes lead to the answers.

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Photos from Wikimedia Commons, Flickr CC-BY-SA or CC-BY-NC, 2.0/3.0. All logos and photos taken from copyrighted sources used in the slideshow are low resolution and are for illustrative and educational purposes only (Read more about fair Use here). For the pdf/pptx version of this quiz set, please contact me directly. 

General Quiz Questions (Part 3)

This is the quiz set I created for a school quiz in Thamarassery in 2014. Looking back, some of the questions appear interesting to me, especially the one with spiderman’s arm.

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Photos from Wikimedia Commons, Flickr CC-BY-SA or CC-BY-NC, 2.0/3.0. All logos and photos taken from copyrighted sources used in the slideshow are low resolution and are for illustrative and educational purposes only (Read more about Fair Use here). For the pdf/pptx version of this quiz set, please contact me directly. 

General Quiz Questions (Part 2)

This is the quiz set on current affairs I prepared for a quiz held in Calicut Medical College (I forgot the occasion). As you guessed it, many questions might be outdated by now.

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Photos from Wikimedia Commons, Flickr CC-BY-SA or CC-BY-NC, 2.0/3.0. All logos and photos taken from newspapers used in the slideshow are low resolution and are for illustrative and educational purposes only (Read more about Fair Use here). For the pdf/pptx version of this quiz set, please contact me directly. 

Gender Gap in Wikipedia’s content

Only 15% of all biographies on English Wikipedia belong to women. Women and men are portrayed differently on Wikipedia in terms of article structure, the use of infoboxes, network properties, notability etc. This research project is aimed at mapping the gender gap on Wikipedia in terms of its content. This work is done as a followup report to my presentation at WikiWomenCamp 2017. The aim is to create a review of peer-reviewed research papers on gender gap on Wikipedia’s content.

Methods

  • Find all relevant articles for the analysis using Google scholar. Keywords used are ‘Wikipedia’, ‘gender’, ‘content’, ‘women’, ‘bias’ and various relevant combinations of these words.
  • Screen the title and abstract to include only those studies that fit the inclusion criteria. Further screening for content to only include the studies about gender gap in Wikipedia’s content.
  • Assess the validity and reliability of the results
  • Systematic presentation of the findings
Rosiestep_at_WikiDivCon_2017
Rosie Stephenson Goodnight has worked extensively on bridging the gender gap in English Wikipedia. Photo: Camelia.boban, CC-BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

Results

The results were summerized under four categories :

  • Coverage bias : Coverage bias occurs when men and women are covered differently on Wikipedia. For example, the coverage bias may manifest as differences in the number of notable women and men portrayed on Wikipedia.
Research Data Methods Findings
Wagner et al [1] Wikipedia in 6 language editions Wikipedia in 6 languages compared to several datasets: Freebase, Pantheon, Human Accomplishment, crawled the content of articles about people in the reference datasets using Wikipedia’s API (November 2014). Men and women are covered equally well on Wikipedia and articles about women tend to be longer than articles about men on Wikipedia, when compared to those from the reference datasets.
Graells-Garrido et al [2] The DBPedia 2014 dataset, The Wikipedia English Dump of October 2014 The DBPedia and Wikipedia data dump were analysed for metadata properties. The gender of a biography, whenever not mentioned, was determined by ‘inferred gender for Wikipedia biographies’ (Bamman and Smith) 15% of articles in ‘Person class’ were about women. In comparison to the global proportion of women, the categories that over-represent women are Artist, Royalty, FictionalCharacter, Noble, BeautyQueen, and Model.
Reagle & Rhue [3] Biographical subjects from several sources (100 Most Influentiial figures in American History, TIME magazine’s list of 2008’s most influential people, Chambers Biographical dictionary, American National Biography Online) compared to English Wikipedia and Britannica. A Python program was used to compare web pages related to the subjects targeted in the reference sources. Google API was queried for top four results. Gender was guessed by the balance of gendered pronouns (she, her, he, his). The length of an article is determined by the words of article content and does not include citations and other miscellany. Wikipedia provides better coverage and longer articles on women than Britannica. Wikipedia has more articles about women than Britannica in absolute terms, but articles about women on Wikipedia are more likely to be missing than articles about men compared to Britannica.
Wagner et al [4] DBPedia 2014 dataset, inferred gender for Wikipedia bios Calculated the number of language editions in which per biography is represented and google search volume of women’s bio, compared them with Wikipedia articles Women in Wikipedia are more notable than men, which the authors interpret as the outcome of a subtle glass ceiling effect.
  • Structural bias : Structural bias refers to preferential use of gender-specific tendencies while connecting articles on notable people. For example, there may be more links to men’s biographies on articles related to women.
WikiGap_sthlm
WikiGap is a program dedicated to closing the content gap on Wikimedia.
Research Data Methods Findings
Wagner et al [1] Wikipedia in 6 language editions Wikipedia’s API (November 2014), analysed for probability that a link from article with gender g1 ends in an article with gender g2. Articles about women connect less to articles about men via interlinks. Articles about people with the same gender tend to link to each other. Articles about women tend to link more to articles about men than the opposite. Men are more central than women in English, Russian and German language Wikipedia.
Graells-Garrido et al [2] The DBPedia 2014 dataset, The Wikipedia English Dump of October 2014 Proportion of links from gender to gender was calculated and tested against expected proportions. Analysed distribution of PageRank by gender to understand centrality. Women biographies tend to link more to other women than to men. The article with highest centrality tend to be predominantly about men, beyond what one could expect from the structure of the network.
Wagner et al [4] DBPedia 2014 dataset, inferred gender for Wikipedia bios, attributes, PageRank Explored to what extent the connectivity between people is influenced by gender. Investigated the relation between the centrality of people and their gender using PageRank. The top-ranked women according to PageRank are slightly less central than men, and the centrality of women decreases faster than that of men with decreasing rank. There exists a bias in the generation of links by Wikipedia editors, favoring articles about men.
  • Lexical bias : Lexical bias refers to the inequalities in the terms used to describe men and women on Wikipedia. For example, the articles about women are more likely to have details about their family life.
Research Data Methods Findings
Wagner et al [1] Wikipedia in 6 language editions Open vocabulary approach where classifier determines which words are most effective in distinguishing the gender of the person an article is about. Log likelihood ratios are used for comparing different feature-outcome relationships. There is lower salience of male-related words in articles about men, which can be related to the idea of male as the null gender (there is a social bias to assume male as the standard gender in certain social situations). Words like “married”, “divorced”, “children” or “family” are much more frequently used in articles about women. This study confirms that men and women are presented differently on Wikipedia and that those differences go beyond what we would expect due to the history of gender inequalities.
Graells-Garrido et al [2] The DBPedia 2014 dataset, The Wikipedia English Dump of October 2014, Linguistic Inquiry and Word count (LIWC) dictionary To explore which words are more strongly associated with each gender, Pointwise Mutual Information is measured over the set of vocabulary in both genders. Also considered burstiness, a measure of word importance in a single document according to the number of times it appears within the document, under the assumption that important words appear more than once (they appear in bursts) when they are relevant in a given document. Marriage and sex-related content are more frequent in women’s biographies and cognition related content is highlighted in men’s biographies. Words most associated with men are mostly about sports, while the words most associated with women are to arts, gender and family. Of particular interest are two concepts strongly associated with women: her husband and first woman.
Wagner et al [4] Overview of English Wikipedia biographies, inferred gender for Wikipedia bios Analysed gender topic, relationship topic and family topic in Wikipedia’s biographies. Quantified the tendency of expressing positive and negative aspects of biographies with adjectives, as a measure of the degree of abstraction of positive and negative content. Family-, Gender-, and relationship-related topics are more present in biographies about women, linguistic bias manifests in Wikipedia since abstract terms tend to be used to describe positive aspects in the biographies of men and negative aspects in the biographies of women.
  • Visibility bias: Visibility bias occurs when articles related to men and women are differently promoted within Wikipedia. For example, men’s biographies are potentially more likely to be featured articles than women’s biographies, although the difference is not significant.
Research Data Methods Findings
Wagner et al [1] Wikipedia in 6 language editions Proportion of women’s biographies that make it to the main page of Wikipedia Selection procedure of featured articles of Wikipedia community does not suffer from gender bias.

 

Group_photo_of_women_wikipedian_with_Katherine_Maher_at_WikiConference_India_2016,_6_August_2016_3
Women Wikimedians at WikiConference, India 2016. According to a 2011 survey, only 3% of Indian Wikimedians were women. Photo: Afifa Afrin, CC-BY-SA, Wikimedia Commons

References

  1. ↑ a b c d It’s a man’s Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an online Encyclopedia Wagner, Claudia; Garcia, David; Jadidi, Mohsen; Strohmaier, Markus (May 2015). “It’s a man’s Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an online Encyclopedia”Proceedings of the Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  2. ↑ a b c Graelles-Garrido, Eduardo; Lalmas, Mounia; Menczer, Filippo (September 2015). “First Women, Second Sex : Gender Bias in Wikipedia”Social and Information Networks. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  3.  Reagle, Joseph; Rhue, Lauren (2011). “Gender bias in Wikipedia and Britannica”International Journal of Communication S: 1138–1158. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  4. a b c Wagner, Claudia; Graelles-Garrido, Eduardo; Garcia, David; Menczer, Filippo (2016). “Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia” (PDF). EPJ Data Science. Retrieved 30 July 2017.

 

The same article can be found on meta-wiki here. A longer presentation containing information regarding gender gap research on Wikipedia can be found here.

Featured photo courtesy: Martina Cora, CC-BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons